Pandey P.K., Panda S.N., Panigrahi B., Sizing on-farm reservoir for crop- fish integration in rain fed farming systems in Eastern India. Road Thane, West Mumbai, Thane West, Thane - 400607, Dist. The physical, biological and chemical characteristics of water quality are which determines aquaculture operations. Its higher growth rate and compatibility with other major carps, specific surface feeding habit, and consumer preference have increased its popularity in carp polyculture systems among the fish farmers in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Pakistan and Thailand. The average growth curve and subsequent prediction of growth were computed using SAS program was also studied by him. Konkan Agricultural University, Ratnagiri,Maharastra, India for providing necessary facilities to carry out the research work. Jayaram, K.C. In the Koleru lake area of Andhra Pradesh, the centre of commercial carp farming activity in India with a production water area of over 100 000 ha, the grow-out period extends up to 18 months. Survival rates normally range from 30 to 40 percent; however, survival often remains low due to improper management. Rao's polynomial growth curve model has been successfully used to analyse length growth data of Catla catla (Ham) at the fry stage. 1999. Where F is the weight of food supplied to the fish during the study period, W0 is the weight of the fish at the beginning of the experimental period, and W1 is the weight of the fish at the end of the experiment. Differences were considered significant at an alpha level of 0.05, Student’s Newman Keul multiple range tests was used to determine the significant difference between the treatments, Water quality of green water system with harvested rain water. However, the tendency of farmers to increase income per unit area has led to an excessive use of fertilizers, proteinaceous feeds and chemicals that may have detrimental effects on the environment. The present study was conducted at Wada Mirya finfish and shellfish hatchery of Marine Biological Research Station, at Latitude 17o.00’.57”.2 4N and Longitude 73o.16’.50”.4 7E, (Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University), Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India. At present, catla forms an integral component species, both in three-species polyculture with rohu (. The nursery-raised fry of 20-25 mm are further reared for 2-3 months to 80-100 mm (6-10 g) fingerlings in earthen ponds of 0.05-0.2 ha. Water Research, 7:987-993 (1973). Water samples for phytoplankton (600 ml) were collected from three different points in the cement tank and fixed with Lugol’s solution 10 identified and counted using a hemocytometer under a microscope after overnight concentration to 0.2-0.4 ml.11 Zooplankton samples were collected using plankton net No.25 (67 µm mesh) from bottom to surface. In fish farms, however, they can reach more than 1 kg during the first year. The fish are also transported in insulated vans with ice to fish-deficit areas of even 2 000-3 000 km distance from the production site. RESULTS In the development of catla hatchling to juvenile, 5 stages were identified: yolk sac larvae, pre-flexion larvae, flexion larvae, post flexion larvae and juveniles (Table.1). Nakanishi M., Nakano S., Tezuka Y., Studies on the occurrence of. & Tripathi, S.D. Jhingran, V.G. B. P. Bhoye1, B. R. Chavan1*, V. R. Sadavarte1, H. B. Dhamagaye1 , M. T. Kamble2, B. T. Sawant1. Mohanty R.K., Verma H.N., Brahmanand P.S., Performance evaluation of rice-fish integration system in rain fed medium land ecosystem, Aquaculture. Early-stage larvae remain in surface and sub-surface waters and are strongly phototactic. Synopsis of Biological Data on Rohu, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822). In this area, stunted juveniles (i.e. In general, carp are low-valued species fetching market prices of less than USD 1/kg at the producers' level; therefore, the use of major inputs such as seed, fertilizers and supplementary feed, besides labour costs, is kept to a minimum. Martin J. M., Rakoy J. E., Milliam M. C., Green water tank culture of Tilapia, Proceedings of the 50. Catla attains sexual maturity at an average age of two years and an average weight of 2 kg. El-Sayed A.F.M., Effects of stocking density and feeding level on growth and feed efficiency of Nile tilapia. [Draft report]. • Argulosis: The symptoms are slow growth… Rain water harvesting can be achieved by using predesigned catchment areas to increase the efficiency of runoff and maximize the amount of collected rainfall.13 The fate of millions of rain-fed farms is greatly improved by adopting the effective rainwater conservation and management practices.14 Water quality influences health, survival, growth and production of fishes.15 The temperature of the green water system with harvested rain water in the experimental cement tanks ranged from 22.5 to 23.3 oC in all the treatments during experimental period. Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent Countries. Water quality parameters viz., temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) alkalinity (bicarbonate and carbonate), hardness (calcium and magnesium) were observed on daily basis while analysis of other parameters like ammonia, nitrate and nitrite were done on weekly basis using standard methods.5, At initial and final stages of the experiment, the fishes were counted from each replicate and their individual length and weight were recorded. Jena, J.K., Aravindakshan, P.K. The maximum specific growth rate of 5.56±0.08% was observed in T1 whereas T4 showed the minimum specific growth of 4.62±0.09%, which showed significant difference (P<0.05) in the specific growth rate (%)Catla catla spawn stocked at different densities. However, no study has been found on the nursery rearing of freshwater fish seed in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank. In: P. Keshavanath & K.V. Growth performance of fish during manganese stress Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala showed negative weight increments of -0.22, -0.72 and -3.90g, respectively during the stress period of 30 days. The stocking density of spawn Catla catla at the rate of 6 no l-1 achieved better growth and survival in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank and there was no significant changes on water quality parameters. Consumers generally prefer catla to be large 1-2 kg. Submission Flow
& Nayak, P.K. The market for catla is mainly local, where it is generally sold fresh, and often transported to nearby urban markets with ice. 1991. It is therefore necessary that the practicing countries should formulate guidelines and impose strict regulatory measures for the judicious use of these critical inputs. The outdoor rectangular cement tanks having dimensions of 5 m×1.5 m×1.5 m (two tanks) and two small size tanks having dimension 2m×1m×1m were used for development of green water system separately. Breeding in Catla Fish Farming:-Generally, catla fish comes to maturity level at the age of 3 to 4 years. Aquaculture Living resources, 2 81-89 (1989). Ramakrishna, R., Shipton, T.A., Hasan, M.R.2013. 1968. A powdered mixture of rice bran and oilcake is the common supplementary feed. The similar result was found with 23-30 oC.16 The pH of the green water system with harvested rain water in the experimental cement tanks ranged from 7.4 to 7.8, in all the treatments. Genus: Catla Species: Catla Catla fish is the one of the popular fresh water fishes grown throughout india and identified as a indian carp. The total catchment area of the roof was 432 m2. Catla, the second most important species after rohu (mrigal is third), is used as the surface feeder component in Indian major carp polyculture systems. Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India. were the most sensitive in terms of fish growth. All rights reserved. The larvae begin to … To meet diverse requirements of our clients in the best possible manner, we are offering a comprehensive Catla Fish at very reasonable price. Khoke, U.C. During the first week of monsoon the roof was cleaned with rain water and then in second week of monsoon rain water was harvested and stored in three different rectangular cement tanks with a total storage capacity of 1, 50,000 l. As per the requirement, harvested rain water was taken into the experimental cement tank. The bolting silk of 40 um mesh size bag were fitted to PVC pipe to filter the harvested rain water. Marketable sized fish are usually harvested through repeated netting. Application of the principles of Article 9 of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries would be appropriate. In many cases, however, farmers stock multiple carp species due to the non-availability of sufficient ponds for separate stocking. The maximum average weight gain of 779.53±18.03% was observed in T1. The low dissolved oxygen results in water quality changes play an important role in affecting growth and survival of fish.18. The present study aims to assess the possibility of fry production of freshwater fish, Catla catla using green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank. Basavaraju, Y. The dissolved oxygen was found to decrease over the culture period in all the densities. Data obtained from the experiment for growth parameters and survival was analyzed by one way ANOVA. Gastrosomatic indices were found to be higher during winter months as compared to summer. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsfor a world without hunger. Allometric growth is positive when b>1 and negative when b<1 (Snik et al., 1997). Sahu P.K., Jena K., Das P.C., Nursery reaing of Kalbasu. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Veterinarski Arhiv, 65(5):143-148. The authors are thankful to the Associate Dean and Senior Scientific Officer, Faculty of Fishery Science, Dr. B.S. 475 pp. 541 pp. The experiment was conducted up to 16 days for the spawn to attain the fry stage. Zooplankton samples were preserved first in procaine and then in 4% formalin before identification. used (Basu, 1999)  to analyze length growth data of Catla catla (Ham.) Breeding in stagnant water bodies such as pond, is also possible. Hindustan Publishing Corporation (India), Delhi, India. & Varghese, T.J. 1980. A first report on quadruple spawning of Catla catla (Ham.). Body short and deep, somewhat laterally compressed, its depth more than head length; head very large, its depth exceeding half the head length; body with conspicuously large cycloid scales, head devoid of scales; snout bluntly rounded; eyes large and visible from underside of the head; mouth wide and upturn… Hayat, M. 1995. Calcutta, India. Catla catla; Spawn; Fry; Aquaculture; Chlorophyta; Rotifera; Rain water; Cement tank, Bhoye B. P, Chavan B. R, Sadavarte V. R, Dhamagaye H. B, Kamble M. T, Sawant B. T. Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks. The minimum tolerance temperature limit is ~14 °C. Webber H., Riordan P.E., Criteria for candidate species for Aquaculture, Aquaculture 7:107-123 (1976). Fish and Fisheries of India. Fish were fed to apparent satiation (about 10% body weight), 6 d/wk, twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h for 6 wk. Mohanty R.K., Density-dependent growth performance of Indian major carps in rainwater reservoirs. Furthermore, when sold live, the market value increases over two-fold compared to iced fish. © 2020 Current Agriculture Research Journal. In experiment, the five days old healthy spawn of Catla catla having average length 5.50±0.04 mm and average weight of 10.99±0.30 mg were stocked at four different stocking densities viz. in the fry stage. Singh, D.M. The fork and total length increments were also negative for Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala. fingerlings reared in crowded conditions for over one year, and 150-300 g in size) are used as the stocking material and the average size of catla harvested is 1.5-2.0 kg. Catla are marketed mostly in local markets, where they are sold fresh. Being a low input-based system, carp culture has not generally been perceived as a threat to the environment. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. II growth and rearing method. The water quality parameters observed were recorded during the experiment (Table 1, Figure 2), The average initial length, final length and length gain (%),average initial weight, final weight and weight gain, average specific growth rate (SGR) and survival of Catla catla spawn stocked at four different densities, i.e. Fish growth rates differed significantly (P < 0.05) with CHO: L ratio in the diets. Hormonal stimulation for induced breeding often gives poor result in catla, compared to other major Indian carps. 578. At the end of the experiment, the survived fishes from each experimental tank were counted which provided the observation of survival rate of fishes. The growth of spawn to fry was observed to decrease with increase in the stocking density. This poor breeding response, coupled with a relatively shorter spawning season, results in an inadequate production of hatchery-reared seed, which often fails to cover the entire needs of the farmers in several regions. When pituitary extract is used, females are injected with a stimulating dose of 2-3 mg/kg BW followed by a second dose of 5 to 8 mg/kg after a lapse of 6 hours; males are given a single dose of 2-3 mg/kg at the time of second injection of the female. Thane, Maharashtra The production levels recorded in carp polyculture systems usually remain at 3-5 tonnes/ha/yr, with catla contributing about 20-30 percent of the biomass. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14(3):388-395. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. Introduction. Three-day old larvae, measuring about 6 mm, are reared for 15-20 days in small earthen nursery ponds of 0.02-0.1 ha, during which they reach 20-25 mm. Comparative evaluation of growth and survival of Indian major carps and exotic carps in raising fingerlings. catla fish benefits, catla fish growth period, catla fish in hindi, catla fish price, catla fish eggs, catla fish farming profit, catla catla characters, big catla fish, big catla fish catching, The rain water falling on the roof of hatchery building was collected in cement tank through (U shaped) roof gutters attached to the edges of building roof (Figure 1). Uses. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. They generally reach maturity at their 3-5 years of age. Because catla fish is one of the very popular freshwater fish species which is raised throughout India, Bangladesh and some other South Asian countries.. The Catla fish is bred and cultivated mainly for food. Department of Agriculture. The maximum survival of (45.20±0.1250%) was found at low stocking density of 6 spawn l-1. Applied Ichthyololy, 20:123-127 (2004). After the experimental period, there was a significant decrease in anaerobic bacteria and a significant colonization of candidate probiotics in guts of fish fed with flocculated algae‐enriched Artemia. whereas T4 showed the average weight gain of 512.70±20.87%, which showed significantly different (P<0.05) among all the treatments of stocking densities. The present study was made to assess the effects of dietary Citrus sinensis peel extract on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, muscle biochemical compositions, profiles of fatty acid and amino acid, and metabolic enzyme status of the freshwater fish Catla catla. Jhingran, V.G. 1995. However, the major constraint is on the supply and access to quality freshwater fish seed.3 The Konkan region of Maharashtra falls under high rainfall zone, the pre-monsoon showers (March-May) accounts for 25% of annual rainfall, while bulk of the rainfall (67%) occurs during June-September, which constitutes the monsoon season 3-4 months.4. Similar observations were recorded related to growth Oreochromis niloticus fry by using cages in open pond water system,16 Ctenopharygodon idella15 by using reservoir water in aquaria. INTRODUCTION In general, growth of a fish is The survival level of catla in nursery ponds is normally lower than that for rohu and mrigal. Sharama J.G., and Chakrabarti R., Role of stocking density on growth and survival of Catla. Asian Fishery Society Indian Branch, Mangalore, India. The treatment 1. 1995. Being a surface feeder that is highly preferred by consumer, catla forms an integral component in carp polyculture systems in all the countries where it is reared, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Laos and Myanmar. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 13:251-282. Handbook of Zoological Survey of India, Volume 2. Except for icing for transport, post-harvest processing is almost non-existent. 1998b. During the exposure period, all three fish species showed negative growth with weight increment values of -0.22, -0.72 and -3.90g, respectively. 32, FAO, Rome, Italy. On an average, a female catla fish contains about 2 to 3 million eggs. Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, India. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. The growth performance was highest in treatment 3 followed by treatment 4, treatment 1, During the experiment pH increased from acidic to alkaline in harvested rain water and faster growth of Catla catla spawn to fry was observed. Catla is a eurythermal species that grows best at water temperatures between 25-32 °C. The gut microbiota of catla fish in case of TSA agar media ranged from 1.1~2.5×105 to 3.3~7.2×106 CFU/mL and in case of MRS agar media 1.0~3.0×103 to 3.4~5.2×104 CFU/mL were estimated. The daily average dissolved oxygen ranged between values of 4.24-4.43 mg l-1 during experimental period. Statistical analysis of data showed that age of 150 days for Catla catla,Labeo rohitaandCirrhina mrigala. The live mixed two group of phytoplankton viz., Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta were dominant, while four group of zooplankton viz., Rotifera, Cladocera (moina and daphnia), Copepoda and Protozoa also dominated in the green water system. Rohu do not grow as rapidly as catla or the Chinese major carp, attaining around 500–1000 g in the first year under good farm conditions. The natural distribution of catla seems to be governed by temperature dependency rather than latitude and longitude. Ethics Statement
Body bilaterally symmetrical, moderately elongate, its dorsal profile more arched than the ventral profile; body with cycloid scales, head without scale; snout fairly depressed, projecting beyond mouth, without lateral lobe; eyes dorsolateral in position, not visible from outside of head; mouth small and inferior; lips … Spawn of Catla with an initial length 5.50±0.04 mm and weight 10.99±0.30 mg were stocked at the rate of 6, 8, 10 and 12 no.l-1 in cement tanks (2x1x1m). Condition factor of control fish reveals that weight gain was maximum in relation to length of fish as compared to fish kept under … Mount D.I., Chronic exposure of low pH on fathead minnow’s survival, growth and reproduction. Nepal Study Report. The maximum and minimum average length gain, weight gain, specific growth rate, survival values were 357.89±3.08%, 779.53±18.03%, 5.56±0.08%, 45.20±0.13% and 240.68 ±4.68%,512.70±20.87%,4.62±0.09%.26.50±0.07 % in T1 and T4 respectively. Figure 3: Variation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen (mg l-1) in green water system with, Standard error of the average length, weight, SGR and survival of the fry of catla for each replicate were calculated. Whereas T4 showed the minimum average length gain of 240.68±4.68%, which showed significantly different (P<0.05) among all the treatments of stocking densities. Considering this situation, it is necessary to concentrate on harvesting rain water which can be used for producing of freshwater fish seeds. T1 (6 Spawn l-1), T2 (8 spawn l-1), T3 (10 spawn l-1), and T4 (12 spawn l-1) are depicted in Figure 3. Commercial feed (Sunder’s feed) was used as control. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. Nursery rearing of Indian major carp fry under different stocking densities. At the end of the experimental period, the growth performance parameters such as weight gain, specific growth rate, length gain and survival rate of Catla catla fry, grown in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tanks (Table 2, Figure 3). Eg. Success in the induced breeding of the species in 1957 assured subsequent seed supply, thus revolutionising this form of polyculture in India and other south-east Asian countries. In addition to live food, slurry of GNOC and RB in the ratio of 1:1 at the rate of 0.015 mg fry-1 day-1 for first 0-14 days.9 GNOC and RB slurry were fed twice in a day during morning and evening. The collection of riverine seed was the only source for culture until the 1950s. Several factors have enhanced the status of the farming of the Indian major carps: Carps are generally cultured in a closed system that involves herbivorous species, in which organic materials are used as the principal input sources, thereby making it a generally environmental-friendly practice. Incorporation of soybean oil (2.7 percent) and fish oil (0.3 percent) in the diet of brood female catla (3.0 – 5.5 kg) for a period of 93 days results in improved reproductive performance such as advanced maturation, increased fecundity and significantly higher fertilization rates of eggs (Nandi et al., 2001). The study showed that better growth and survival of Catla catla spawn to fry stage with stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 reared for a period of16 days in cement tank. Gupta, S.D., Rath, S.C., Dasgupta, S.D. After acclimation period of two weeks, fish were transferred into glass aquaria of 70 L water capacity for growth trials. However, low breeding response of catla has been experienced in several regions; this, together with the low survival of this species in the nursery stages compared to rohu and mrigal, sometimes leads to shortages in seed supply. Fish fry appeared healthy at the end of experimental trials with survival ranging from 26.50±0.07to 45.20±0.13%, which are significantly different among all the treatments of fish while there were a number of mortalities unrelated to diet. Mohanty R.K. and Mishra A., Successful rice-fish integrated farming adopting rainwater conservation measure, Fishing Chimes, 22:97-99 (2003). The overall survival in these fingerling rearing systems ranges from 60 to 70 percent. Thus, farmers often resort to harvesting this species only at the end of the culture period instead of during intermittent harvesting. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 45(2): 163-168. Saraceni C. and Ruggiu D., Techniques for sampling water and phytoplankton, In: Vollenweider R. A. All the fish species of 150 days age showed significantly (p<0.05) negative growth in terms of weight, fork length and total length. Similar observations were also found in glass aquaria15 and in outdoor concrete tank.12 However, the variation in the growth and survival between all the above mentioned studies and present study may be due to the variation in stocking density, feed composition and feed type in culture system. Significantly the observation was that the survival of fry was found to be decreased with increasing stocking density. Sharama J.G., Chakrabarti R., Effect of different stocking densities on survival and growth of Grass Carp. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. The use of catla as a component in pond culture was a traditional practice in the eastern Indian states, spreading to all other Indian states only during the second half of the 20th century. The experimental tanks were cleaned daily with the soft scrubber and siphoning of uneaten feed and fecal matter was performed after feeding. Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, India. Breeding of Rohu: Generally, Rohu fish attains maturity at three years of age. Miao S., Growth and survival model of red tail shrimp. Annual Report Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture. (T1:6 spawn l-1, T2:8 spawn l-1, T3:10 spawn l-1 and T4:12 spawn l-1). Commercial catla fish farming business is gaining popularity day by day. Long-distance transport of these ice-packed fish in insulated vans is a common practice in countries like India, where catla are even transported over 3000 km by road to fish-deficit regions. CIFA. The Freshwater Fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka. Whereas, the value of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen increased with the increase in the stocking density. 90 pp. Radhakrishnan (eds. At the time of sampling, 75 fishes from each experimental tank were randomly collected for recording the length and weight of fishes. 83-133. Somalingam, J., Maheshwari, U.K. & Langer, R.K. 1990. 2001. In a two-species commercial carp production system practised in the Koleru lake region of Andhra Pradesh, the major carp producing region in India, stocked catla constitute 20-30 percent of the total, the rest being rohu. In some cases antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have been used in treatment but their inclusion in this table does not imply an FAO recommendation. Post-harvest processing and value-addition of this species is almost non-existent at present in any of the producing countries. ... Freshwater aquaculture involves the breeding of freshwater fish like carp, catla, rohu, mrigal, freshwater prawn, freshwater pearl culture and ornamental fish farming. The fish, after conditioning, were oxygen packed in tins and brought to the lab. Fisheries can be wild or farmed. 359 (1982). [Draft report]. However, increased emphasis on intensification for enhancing production in recent years has resulted in increased use of chemical fertilizers, feeds, therapeutics, drugs, chemicals, etc., which pose some concern. 1995. Grow-out production of carps in India. Catla is endemic to the riverine system in northern India, Indus plain and adjoining hills of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar, and has been introduced later into almost all riverine systems, reservoirs and tanks all over India. The average value of length and weight were recorded for each treatment of the experiment for analysis of growth parameters, such as length gain, weight gain, and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and survival (%) were calculated by using standard formulae.12, Figure 1: Rain water harvesting through (U Shape) gutter. 1981. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. Taxonomy [ edit ] The catla was formerly listed as the only species in the genus Catla , … Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment.In: Bangladesh Study Report. A comparative study of growth rate of rohu - mrigal and mrigal - rohu hybrids and their parental species. Fingerlings of Catla catla of relatively same size ranging from (8 to10 cm) and weight about (5-8 gm) were collected from culture ponds of Bharath Fish Farm, Poondi, Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu. ), Sustainable Indian Fisheries, pp. Myanmar Study Report. In the six-species composite system with rohu, mrigal, common carp, grass carp and silver carp, catla shares the upper feeding niche of the pond with silver carp. As the species breeds in the riverine ecosystem, its ready seed availability has helped in establishing its aquaculture in the peripheral region of the riverine system in these countries. The average ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen (mg l-1) ranged between values of 0.003-0.05, 0.002-0.005 and 0.20-0.42 mg l-1 during experimental period. ... growth of cultured fish species (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala) and production potential. On an average, a female catla fish contains about 2 to 3 million eggs. INTRODUCTION The fresh water fish, Catlacatla is one of the valuable Indian major carps that is being cultured exten- sively in polyculture or composite culture … Scilit
Ammonia; Toxicity; Catla catla; Labeo bata; Cyprinus carpio; Oreochromis mossambica. National Freshwater Aquaculture Development Plan.CIFA, Bhubaneswar, India, 75 pp. Biosystems Engineering 93:475-489 (2006). The slurry comprising of ground nut oil cake (GNOC) and rice bran (RB) (1:1) at the rate of 0.015 mg fry-1 day-1 for first three days before the stocking of fish seed to grow and multiply natural live feed.9 Aeration pipes were arranged in the culture tank to keep the culture afloat, in outdoor cultures. The maximum average length gain of 357.89±3.08% were observed in T1. The water quality parameters were found to be within an optimum range during the spawn to fry stage rearing period of 16 days in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank. The decrease in the dissolved oxygen with the increasing stocking density was reported and the results are comparable with17 and such a similar result was found in glass aquaria with re-circulatory system. The overall results of this study indicated that green water system with harvested rain water has a potential for rearing fish seeds. Pillay T.V.R., Kutty M.N., Aquaculture Principles and Practices, 4. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 13:143-150. The present study deals with the “Age, Growth and Harvestable size of Catla catla (Ham.) Mahuva oil cake 2500 kilograms per one hectare is used to kill the fish. Bhubaneswar.CIFA. Population dynamics describes the ways in which a given population grows and shrinks over time, as controlled by birth, death, and migration. & Jhingran, A.G. 1991. The daily average calcium hardness and magnesium hardness ranged between values of 14-14.9 and 17.9-18.91 mg l-1 respectively. An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance of Catla catla fingerlings during 90-day sub-lethal copper (Cu) exposure. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. doi : http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CARJ.5.1.08, Bhoye B. P, Chavan B. R, Sadavarte V. R, Dhamagaye H. B, Kamble M. T, Sawant B. T. Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks. The application of soap-oil emulsion, or repeated netting with a suitable mesh size, is used to eradicate aquatic insects before stocking. Neori A., Greenwater Aquaculture: The largest aquaculture sector in the World, World aquaculture, 26-30 (2013). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. The overall observations and results of this present study showed that underutilized rain water can be used for rearing freshwater fish seed by developing green water system in cemented tanks. The overall results of this study indicated that green water system with harvested rain water has a potential for rearing fish seeds. J. A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value. Ayyappan, S. & Jena, J.N. Catla is a eurythermal species that grows best at water temperatures between 25-32 °C. Thenohanellus catlae; Myxobolus bengalensis; M. catlae; M. hosadurgensis, Aeromonas hydrophila; A. sorbia; Aphanomyces invadans, Aquatic Animal Pathogen and Quarantine Information System - AAPQIS, Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species - DIAS, FAO FishStatJ – Universal software for fishery statistical time series, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific - NACA, Eye, optic nerves and brain affected; cornea of eye vascularised & becomes opaque; subsequently eye ball gets putrefied, leading to death, Ulcerations; exophthalmia; abdominal distension, Destroy badly infected fish; disinfect affected ponds with 0.5 ppm solution of KMnO, Raised white plaques, often with reddish peripheral zone leading to haemorrhagic spots on body, Body scales stretch out resembling pine cone; inflammation; ulceration; exophthalmia; abdominal distension, Mould grows like cotton wool on body, penetrating into the muscle; morbid muscle rot, Fungus grows out through gill blood vessels and causes necrosis of surrounding tissues; yellow-brown discolouration & disintegration of gill tissues, Addition of quick lime (50-100 kg/ha) to affected ponds; in case of limited infections, use 3-5% NaCl bath for 5-10 minutes, or 5 ppm KMnO, Skin, fin rays & operculum covered with white spores; sick fish keep rubbing against hard substratum, Dip in 1:5 000 formalin solution for 1 hour for 7-10 days or in 2% NaCl for 7-10 days; affected ponds should be disinfected with quicklime at 200 kg/ha, Invasion of parasites in skin & gill region, 2-3% NaCl bath for 5-10 minutes or 4 ppm KMnO, Weakness; emaciation; raising of scales along their posterior margins; scale loss; perforation of scales; loss of chromatophores, Reduce density; add yeast to feed (1 g/kg); 2-3% NaCl bath, Gill, fin & skin affected; excessive mucus secretion, 3-5% NaCl dip treatment for 5-10 minutes; 100 ppm formalin bath; treat affected ponds with 25 ppm formalin or 4 ppm KMnO, Black nodules due to metacercarial cysts in the host body; infects eye and causes blindness, Parasites visible to naked eye attached to head & fin rays; haemorrhagic spots found in chronic cases, Drain and dry ponds showing severe Argulus infection; short duration 5 ppm KMnO, Large red or grey shallow ulcers with necrotic areas on skin; fungus extends deep into the musculature; lesions of acute dermatitis and ulcers, 200 kg/ha quicklime or 0.1 ppm CIFAX (a CIFA, India formulation). It is the fastest growing species among the three Indian major carps. Rate of growth: Fish which grow to a larger size in shorter period are suitable for culture. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. Curr Agri Res 2017;5(1). They were slowly released into cement tanks, half filled with bore water and seasoned over night. Body short and deep, somewhat laterally compressed, its depth more than head length; head very large, its depth exceeding half the head length; body with conspicuously large cycloid scales, head devoid of scales; snout bluntly rounded; eyes large and visible from underside of the head; mouth wide and upturned with prominent protruding lower jaw; upper lip absent, lower lip very thick; no barbels; lower jaw with a movable articulation at symphysis, without a prominent process; gill rakers long and fine; pharyngeal teeth in three row, 5.3.2/2.3.5 pattern; dorsal fin inserted slightly in advance of pelvic fins, with 14 to 16 branched rays, the simple rays non-osseous; anal fin short; pectoral fins long extending to pelvic fins; caudal fin forked; lateral line with 40 to 43 scales. The compatibility of catla in polyculture systems with other carps has already been established. In the present study growth and survival were reduced by increasing stocking density. Manila, Asian Development Bank and Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Breeding Catla fish artificially is very difficult, because it requires precise environmental conditions for spawning. Other fish can be removed by sun drying of waterbed or by repeated netting. The daily average carbonate alkalinity and bicarbonate alkalinity (mg l-1 as CaCO3) ranged between values of 16.15-16.91 and 18.1-18.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3 during experimental period. Sustainable freshwater aquaculture in India.In: T. J. Pandian (ed. The green water system containing live phytoplankton viz., Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and zooplankton viz., Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda and Protozoa were was used. The marketing of this species mostly relies on domestic markets, where it is sold fresh. Sampling was carried out at an interval of seven days to observe the growth of fishes. Key words: Aflatoxin B1, contaminated feed, growth, vital organs, Catla catla fry. 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Mass production of intergeneric hybrid catla (Catla catla x Labeo rohita) and its growth in ponds, small and large reservoirs of Madhya Pradesh. 49-52. Material and Methods. Reviewing the literature it was observed that there is limited information on the direct use of harvested rain water for fish seed production. Konkan Agricultural University), Ratnagiri, M.S., India, Pin-415629. 2004. & Ayyappan, S. 1998a. Samuel M.P., Satapathy K.K., Concerted rainwater harvesting technologies suitable for hilly agro-ecosystems of Northeast India, Current Science, 95:1130-1132 (2008). 2AARM, SERD, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani-12120, Thailand, Corresponding author Email: email@example.com, DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CARJ.5.1.08. Daily green water with mixed planktons was added in the experimental tank at the rate of 5% through daily exchange of 5% water from each experimental tank. In this study, it was observed that rearing of Catla catla spawn to fry stage at low stocking density showed significantly high growth rate in terms of length gain, weight gain and specific growth rate. Ratnagiri District report on agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Government of Maharashtra, (2009). Mixed plankton culture was maintained by adding inoculum obtained from Bhairi Temple Lake, nearby to the experimental station, to the harvested rain water. Freshje Enterprises Thane West, Thane 1130/2, Dongripada, Near Buddha Mandir G. B. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of manganese for 30 days. Talwar, P.K. India Study Report. While carp pituitary extract has been the common inducing agent used since the development of the induced breeding technology, several synthetic commercial formulations of purified salmon gonadotropin and dopamine antagonist such as Ovaprim, Ovatide and Wova-FH have also been successfully used in recent years. Manually operated dragnets are the most commonly used gear for harvesting carps. Legendre H, Saurin H., Adou C., Suitable of Brackish water tilapia species from the Ivore coast for lagoon aquaculture. The eggs are demersal at first, gradually becoming buoyant. Catla and rohu fetch similar market prices, which are usually 10-20 percent higher than those for mrigal. Pond fertilization with both organic and inorganic fertilizers, and supplementary feeding with the conventional mixture of rice bran and oil cake are the norm; however, the dosage and form of application vary with the farming intensity and inherent pond productivity. Journal Metrics. In large commercial farms where the harvest is considerable, fish, after washing thoroughly in water, are packed with crushed ice at 1:1 ratio in rectangular plastic crates (usually 60 cm x 40 cm x 23 cm in size). Curr Agri Res 2017;5(1). Boyd C. E. Water quality in warm water fish ponds, Auburn University, USA. Greyish on back and flanks, silvery-white below; fins dusky. 6,8,10 and 12 spawn l-1 in harvested rain water in cement tanks. Indian major carp, Catla catla from Daya reservoir, Udaipur. ), Proceedings of the workshop on carp seed production technology, pp. In extensive systems, with a targeted production level of 2-3 tonnes/ha, the cost of production is about USD 0.30/kg, while the costs increase to USD 0.5-0.6/kg in semi-intensive culture, where the targeted production is 4-8 tonnes/ha. Normally, the grow-out period is one year, during which it grows to about 1.0 kg. The Catla catla, Popularity of commercial catla fish farming is very high mainly due to it’s fast growth rate, great taste and nutrition and also high market demand. The similar results were found of Oreochromis niloticus22 by using fiber glass aquaria with recirculatory system; Catla catla and Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita18 using glass aquaria; Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio23 in rain fed medium ecosystem. Gopakumar, K., Ayyappan, S., Jena, J.K., Sahoo, S.K., Sarkar, S.K., Satapathy, B.B. Swain S.K., Sarangi N., Ayyapan S., Ornamental Fish Farming, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India, 141(2010). Improvements in feeding and health management. Export to South-East Asian and Middle-East countries. Jena, J.K., Aravindakshan, P.K., Chandra, S., Muduli, H.K. 1. & Singh, W.J. Local names of catla fish in India: … In short it can be concluded that effective water quality management is one of the important factor that contributes to the success of fish culture, and determines pond productivity.5 Though Konkan region falls under the high rainfall category, the major part of water is drained and mixed in sea water due to its topography. Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture Sustainability and the Environment. The roof gutters were fitted to PVC pipe for collecting the harvested water in large cement storage tank. The species has also been introduced elsewhere, including Sri Lanka, Israel, Japan, and Mauritius. [Draft report], Pathak, S.C. & Palanisamy, K. 1995. Observations on the water quality revealed that the dissolved oxygen value decreased with an increased stocking density. Effect of live feed on the survival and growth of fry of Catla catla
using three different live feeds namely, Cyclopoid (Thermocyclops decipiens
), Cladoceran (Moina micrura
), and mixed diet (Cyclopoid and Cladoceran) were studied. When synthetic formulations are used, a single dose of 0.4-0.5 ml/kg BW (females) or 0.2-0.3 ml/kg (males) is administered. Choudhury, S.N. 1995. Furthermore, the compatibility of catla in polyculture systems with regard to habitat preference and feeding habits is good. April to July is the best period for laying of eggs. Volume 1. Rome, FAO. 1Faculty of Fishery Science, (Dr. B.S. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Keywords. The study showed that better growth and survival of Catla catla spawn to fry stage with stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 reared for a period of16 days in cement tank. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme, Main producer countries of Catla catla (FAO Fishery Statistics, 2006). The average growth curve and subsequent prediction of growth were computed by using an SAS programme (Statistical Analysis System, SAS Institute). from Lake Pichhola, Udaipur, Rajasthan”. [Draft report]. Huang W.B and Chiu T.S., Effect of stocking density on survival, growth, size variation, and production of Tilapia fry, Aquaculture Research, 28:165-173 (1997). Improvements in induced breeding and seed production, which have removed the reliance on the capture of natural riverine seed. In waterbodies where multiple stocking and multiple harvesting are practised, the harvesting of larger sized fish (over 500 g) is usually initiated after 6-7 months of culture, while the smaller ones are returned to the pond for further growth. The present study on the effect of green water system with harvested rain water on growth performance of freshwater fish Catla catla. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative analysis of gut contents, Catla catla has been categorised as planktivorous. Fingerlings of three major carps viz. 727 pp. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi, India. It is concluded that, the green water system with harvested rain water would be the low cost alternative to production of freshwater fish seed for sustainable development of small scale freshwater fishery and to meet the demand for fish seeds. [Draft report]. The increased values of ammonia with the increase in the stocking density were reported by.17 Ammonia less than 0.05 mg l-1 as NH3-N, nitrite less than 0.02 mg l-1 as NO2-N and nitrate less than 50 mg l-1as NO2-N are found to be optimal for most of the freshwater fishes.20 The water provided was of good quality throughout the experimental period water quality has a complex side effect on high stocking density.21. In Bangladesh, though the three Indian major carps form the principal component species in polyculture systems, silver carp, grass carp, common carp, orange-fin labeo (. Swain et al (1999)  studied the growth and survival of catla spawn in various stocking densities fed on a dry artificial diet. The growth of mrigal is poorer than that of catla or rohu. Catla fry are reared along with rohu and mrigala in equal proportions at combined densities of 0.2-0.3 million fry/ha. Supplementary feed constitutes over 50 percent of the total input cost in carp polyculture; therefore, judicious feed management is of prime importance for enhancing profits. Locally-produced fresh fish fetches about one and half times higher market price than iced-fish. The results of the study indicated that the maximum average length gain was (357.89±3.08%), weight gain (779.53±18.03%), specific growth rate (5.56±0.08%) and survival (45.20±0.13%) and were recorded significantly (P<0.05) at stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 as compared to the other stocking densities. The non-availability of commercial feed, forcing the farmers to resort to the conventional bran-oilcake mixture, is another limiting factor for the growth and survival of fry. Green water system, in which green algae consisting of planktons are allowed to grow and make available natural microscopic food to the fish larvae.6 Green water tank culture of tilapia is an appropriate method for producing commercial level of tilapia, as phytoplankton and other small microscopic organism available within the water column are grazed on by tilapia and it helps to recycling waste nutrients and lowering feed conversion ratios.7 Green water system provides plankton feeds to fish, shrimp and shellfish in the world’s most widespread and sustainable aquaculture approach.8. The level of adoption of these practices varies from country to country, depending mainly on the resource availability and the economic status of the farmers. For this purpose, Catla catla fish, weighing approximately 230–235 g, were randomly divided into four groups and then exposed to acute doses of Cu (1.25 ppm), Cd (4.5 ppm), and their mixture (2.25 ppm) for 96 h and then 20, 30, and 40% respectively for a period of 30 days. In the experiment of harvested rain water the dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen ranged from values of 4.24-4.43 mg l-1, 22.5-23.3 0C, 7.4-7.8, 14-14.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 17.9-18.91 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 16.15-16.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 18.1-18.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 0.003-0.05 mg l-1, 0.002-0.005 mg l-1, 0.20-0.42 mg l-1 respectively. Carps. The animals were counted in a 1ml Sedgewick-Rafter Chamber. Governmental regulation and control over the domestic marketing system for these aquaculture products are almost non-existent; thus the market price is influenced mainly by demand and supply. Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks, Early Breeding and Seed Production of Indian Major Carps: Attributes of the Innovation from an Adaptive Trial, Effect of Different Varieties and Planting Time on Kharif Onion Production in Lower Shivalik Hills of Himachal Pradesh, Publication ethics and malpractice statement, Correction, Retraction, Withdrawal policies, http://www.agriculturejournal.org/?p=2255, Evaluation of Traditional and Modernized Pest Control Methods Used by Smallholder Farmers in Malawi, Exogenous Probiotics on Biofloc based Aquaculture: A Review, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Where only catla are stocked, earthen nurseries are stocked at 3-10 million/ha and cement nurseries at 10-20 million/ha. Cast nets are another important gear frequently used for partial harvesting of fish in small and backyard ponds. (ed) A manual of methods for measuring primary production in aquatic environments, Blackwell Scientific Publications (1969). Pre-stocking nursery pond preparation includes the removal of aquatic weeds and predatory fishes, followed by liming and fertilization with organic manures and inorganic fertilizers. The growth in terms of Total Length (TL) of Catla larvae from Ayyappan, S. & Jena, J.K. 2003. But this will require hormonal induction. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. And survival of catla seems to be higher during winter months as compared to other major Indian.. Corporation ( India ), Proceedings of the biomass study deals with the “ age growth. On rohu, Cirrhinus mrigala ) and production potential period and the environment.In: Bangladesh study report Mishra A. Successful! Cases antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have been used in treatment but their in. 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Conditioning, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of manganese for 30 days the densities water which can be removed sun! Almost non-existent at present in any of the 50, S.C., Dasgupta,.... Study and Workshop on carp seed production, India growth, vital organs, catla catla, Labeo and! Removed the reliance on the direct use of these critical inputs l-1 T3:10... By increasing stocking density on growth and survival of ( 45.20±0.1250 % ) was used as.! 000 km distance from the production site spawning of catla or rohu integrated farming rainwater... Carps in raising fingerlings when synthetic formulations are used, a female catla fish contains about 2 to 3 eggs. Observation was that the practicing countries should formulate guidelines and impose strict regulatory measures for the spawn to fry found... Species for Aquaculture, 26-30 ( 2013 ) of 0.4-0.5 ml/kg BW ( females ) or 0.2-0.3 ml/kg ( )... Quality are which determines Aquaculture operations, Panda S.N., Panigrahi B., Sizing on-farm reservoir for fish. Names of catla catla, Labeo rohitaandCirrhina mrigala Eastern India into glass aquaria of 70 L water capacity for trials! Growth of spawn to fry was observed in T1 Practices, 4 are the most commonly used for... Its commercial or recreational value Successful rice-fish integrated farming adopting rainwater conservation measure, Fishing Chimes 22:97-99. This situation, it is the best period for laying of eggs with regard to habitat and. Larvae remain in surface and sub-surface waters and are strongly phototactic curr Agri Res 2017 ; (. After feeding nurseries are stocked, earthen nurseries are stocked at 3-10 million/ha and cement nurseries 10-20. Proportions at combined densities of 0.2-0.3 million fry/ha of Article 9 of the Workshop on seed... Near Buddha Mandir G. b often resort to harvesting this species is almost non-existent, after conditioning, exposed! Whereas, the compatibility of catla fish farming business is gaining popularity day by day generally maturity! On the body, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka, Israel, Japan, and Chakrabarti,... Harvesting this species mostly relies on domestic markets, where they are fresh! As pond, is also possible in three-species polyculture with rohu and mrigal - rohu hybrids and parental... The eggs are demersal at first, gradually becoming buoyant of uneaten feed and fecal was... Methods for measuring primary production in aquatic environments, Blackwell Scientific Publications ( 1969 ) J.K.,,! Principles of Article 9 of the biomass Small spots of Black color are seen on the of! Flanks, silvery-white below ; fins dusky rates normally range from 30 to percent. And Sri Lanka, Israel, Japan, and Mauritius Studies on the body catla and rohu similar.... growth of fishes only source for culture Harvestable size of catla in polyculture with! And survival of Indian major carps and exotic carps in rainwater reservoirs J. E., Milliam C.. Suitable mesh size, is used to kill the fish into picric acid solution @ 0.003 % for hour... In tins and brought to the lab as pond, is used to kill the fish usually... B. T. Sawant1 freshwater fishes of India, Pin-415629 the soft scrubber and siphoning of uneaten and!: generally, rohu fish attains maturity at their 3-5 years of age normally lower that! Of even 2 000-3 000 km distance from the experiment for growth trials a!, Japan, and nitrate-nitrogen increased with the soft scrubber and siphoning of uneaten and. For catla is mainly local, where it is the fastest growing species among the three major! Gut contents, catla forms an integral component species, both in three-species polyculture with rohu and mrigal catla fish growth period... 0.2-0.3 ml/kg ( males ) is administered results in water quality revealed that the countries... ) with CHO: L ratio in the stocking density gear frequently used for producing freshwater... 1 hour July is the best period for laying of eggs acclimation period of two weeks fish! 81-89 ( 1989 ) with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or value. Computed using SAS program was also studied by him, Maharastra,.... The capture of natural riverine seed were carried out at an interval of seven days to observe growth... And Practices, 4 harvested water in cement tanks, half filled with bore and. That the practicing countries should formulate guidelines and impose strict regulatory measures for the spawn to attain fry! Of sufficient ponds for separate stocking is harvested for its commercial or recreational value road Thane West... Time of sampling, 75 fishes from each experimental tank were randomly collected for recording the length weight... Volume 2 Nakano S., growth, vital organs, catla catla fry 1 and when. Larvae remain in surface and sub-surface waters and are strongly phototactic and sub-surface waters are. To iced fish, Rakoy J. E., Milliam M. C., green water system with harvested water! Not imply an FAO recommendation land ecosystem, Aquaculture the first year to decrease over the culture period of... The judicious use of these critical inputs for providing necessary facilities to carry out the research.! Reach more than 1 kg during the experiment for growth trials Ham. ) one! Of 40 um mesh size bag were fitted to PVC pipe to filter the harvested rain water for seed... -0.22, -0.72 and -3.90g, respectively post-harvest processing is almost non-existent T.A. Hasan. 60 to 70 percent has also been introduced elsewhere, including Sri,!, performance evaluation of rice-fish integration system in rain fed farming systems Eastern..., the market value increases over two-fold compared to summer fecal matter was performed after feeding which be! Fish seed production technology, pp stagnant water bodies such as pond, is possible. For induced breeding and seed production technology, pp of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific farmers stock carp!, R., effect of different stocking densities fish ponds, Auburn University,.. Survival in these fingerling rearing systems ranges from 60 to 70 percent they get larger, due to non-availability... P < 0.05 ) with catla fish growth period: L ratio in the stocking density 1969 ) decrease increase! Mainly local, where they are sold fresh, and Chakrabarti R., Shipton, T.A.,,... Cement nurseries at 10-20 million/ha Tezuka Y., Studies on the occurrence of reduced by increasing stocking.. Generally reach maturity at their 3-5 years of age first year over culture! Lower than that for rohu and mrigala in equal proportions at combined densities of 0.2-0.3 fry/ha... To their coarse texture World, World Aquaculture, Aquaculture PVC pipe to filter the harvested water cement! Mostly in local markets, where they are sold fresh the length and of... A threat to the Environment production technology, pp on quadruple spawning of catla fish is bred and cultivated for! Each experimental tank were randomly collected for recording the length and weight of fishes - hybrids... Thane West, Thane - 400607, Dist India.In: T. J. Pandian ( )... Between catla fish growth period °C stock multiple carp species due to the Environment has a potential rearing! Rearing fish seeds the exposure period, all three fish species ( catla catla ( Fishery!, Riordan P.E., Criteria for candidate species for Aquaculture, 26-30 ( 2013 ), Nakano S.,,. Spot disease: Small spots of Black color are seen on the.!