[41] The Westerlies play an important role in carrying the warm, equatorial waters and winds to the western coasts of continents,[42][43] especially in the southern hemisphere because of its vast oceanic expanse. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land breeze cycle can define local winds; in areas that have variable terrain, mountain and valley breezes can dominate local winds. [137] Increases in wind above 15 kilometers per hour (9.3 mph) signals glaucous gulls to increase their foraging and aerial attacks on thick-billed murres.[138]. An example is the formation of sand dunes, on a beach or in a desert. So, we find that the total wind energy is: Differentiating with respect to time to find the rate of increase of energy, we find that the total wind power is: Wind power is thus proportional to the third power of the wind velocity. Definitions by the largest Idiom Dictionary. In a realistic wind turbine, this is impossible, as the captured air must also leave the turbine. 1 – Surface Weather Observations and Reports September 2005, "Section 2. Below is a summary of the classifications used by Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers worldwide: The Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF Scale) rates the strength of tornadoes in the United States by using damage to estimate wind speed. Within the Beaufort scale, gale-force winds lie between 28 knots (52 km/h) and 55 knots (102 km/h) with preceding adjectives such as moderate, fresh, strong, and whole used to differentiate the wind's strength within the gale category. Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier air on the descending and generally warming, leeward side where a rain shadow is observed. [149] Such a process over geologic time causes water-rich planets such as the Earth to evolve into planets like Venus. What made you want to look up wind? The kinetic energy of a packet of air of mass m with velocity v is given by ½ m v2. Offshore US (in development) Learn more. Wind gradient can have a noticeable effect on ground launches, also known as winch launches or wire launches. When these winds blow over open waters, they increase mixing of the upper layers of the ocean that elevates cool, nutrient rich waters to the surface, which leads to increased marine life. Worldwide animated weather map, with easy to use layers and precise spot forecast. [139] Especially on high buildings, many structural parts may be a cause of annoying noise at certain wind conditions. What does wind expression mean? [157] When the poles of Mars are exposed to sunlight after their winter, the frozen CO2 sublimates, creating significant winds that sweep off the poles as fast as 400 kilometers per hour (250 mph), which subsequently transports large amounts of dust and water vapor over its landscape. [8] At airports, windsocks indicate wind direction, and can also be used to estimate wind speed by the angle of hang. [114] Similar dust plumes originate in the Gobi Desert, which combined with pollutants, spread large distances downwind, or eastward, into North America. High winds scour away thin soils through erosion,[123] as well as damage limbs and twigs. Easterly winds, on average, dominate the flow pattern across the poles, westerly winds blow across the mid-latitudes of the earth, polewards of the subtropical ridge, while easterlies again dominate the tropics. The solar wind creates the Heliosphere, a vast bubble in the interstellar medium surrounding the Solar System. Historically, wind power in the form of windmills has been used for centuries for such tasks as grinding grain and pumping water. When the temperature onshore cools below the temperature offshore, the pressure over the water will be lower than that of the land, establishing a land breeze, as long as an onshore wind is not strong enough to oppose it. [53] Winds that flow over mountains down into lower elevations are known as downslope winds. From Middle English winde, wind, from Old English wind (“wind”), from Proto-Germanic *windaz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wéh₁n̥tos (“wind”), from earlier *h₂wéh₁n̥ts (“wind”), derived from the present participle of *h₂weh₁- (“to blow”). When wind gusts are at a similar frequency to the swaying of the bridge, the bridge can be destroyed more easily, such as what occurred with the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940. Unusual mechanisms of wind dispersal include tumbleweeds. A tailwind increases takeoff distance required and decreases the climb gradient. These prevailing winds blow from the west to the east,[37][38] and steer extratropical cyclones in this general manner. Strong updrafts, downdrafts, and eddies develop as the air flows over hills and down valleys. Wind affects animals' food stores, as well as their hunting and defensive strategies. [14] Knowing the wind sampling average is important, as the value of a one-minute sustained wind is typically 14% greater than a ten-minute sustained wind. For full treatment, see climate: Wind. Wind has a very important role in aiding plants and other immobile organisms in dispersal of seeds, spores, pollen, etc. The strongest westerly winds in the middle latitudes are within a band known as the Roaring Forties, between 40 and 50 degrees latitude south of the equator. [166] At 70° S latitude on Neptune, a high-speed jet stream travels at a speed of 300 meters per second (670 mph). Historically, the Beaufort wind force scale (created by Beaufort) provides an empirical description of wind speed based on observed sea conditions. Cloud Formation Processes", "Foehn Winds That Produced Large Temperature Differences near the Southern Appalachian Mountains", "On High Winds and Foehn Warming Associated with Mountain-Wave Events in the Western Foothills of the Southern Appalachian Mountains", "Unexpected Warming Induced by Foehn Winds in the Lee of the Smoky Mountains", 10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0907:UWIBFW>2.0.CO;2, "120 Gigawatt of wind turbines globally contribute to secure electricity generation", "From AC to DC: Going green with supergrids", http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/REN12-GSR2015_Onlinebook_low1.pdf, "FAA Advisory Circular Pilot Wind Shear Guide via the Internet Wayback Machine", National Aeronautic and Space Administration, Ground Plane Wind Shear Interaction on Acoustic Transmission, "Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: 7, "Protestant Wind"—"Popish Wind": The Revolusion of 1688 in England", 10.1175/1520-0477(1985)066<0634:GHETWS>2.0.CO;2, "Boat made of plastic bottles to make ocean voyage", "Relative Velocities: Aircraft Reference", "Emergency Tillage to Control Wind Erosion", "Robotic Observations of Dust Storm Enhancement of Carbon Biomass in the North Pacific", "Microbes And The Dust They Ride In On Pose Potential Health Risks", "Study Says African Dust Affects Climate in U.S., Caribbean", "Table of Contents: Wind Climatology of the Winter Shamal", "Wind-Conditioned 20th Century Decline of Birch Treeline Vegetation in the Swedish Scandes", ARS Studies Effect of Wind Sandblasting on Cotton Plants / January 26, 2010 / News from the USDA Agricultural Research Service, "ARS Studies Effect of Wind Sandblasting on Cotton Plants", "Birds migrate together at night in dispersed flocks, new study indicates", "BIO 554/754 Ornithology Lecture Notes 2 – Bird Flight I", "P5A.6 Fine-Scale Vertical Structure of a Cold Front As Revealed By Airborne 95 GHZ Radar", "Contamination of WSR-88D VAD Winds Due to Bird Migration: A Case Study", 10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[2403:WAPNSA]2.0.CO;2, "How to Minimize Wind Damage in the South Florida Garden", "Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Information", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Info note No.58 — World Record Wind Gust: 408 km/h", "Chandra Finds Fastest Winds from Stellar Black Hole", "Atmospheric Escape Hot Jupiters & Interactions Between Planetary and Stellar Winds", "Geomagnetic Storms Can Threaten Electric Power Grid", National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "Cloud-tracked winds from Pioneer Venus OCPP images", 10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<2053:CTWFVO>2.0.CO;2, "Mars Rovers Spot Water-Clue Mineral, Frost, Clouds", NASA – NASA Mars Rover Churns Up Questions With Sulfur-Rich Soil, "Uranus in 2003: Zonal winds, banded structure, and discrete features", Convective available potential energy (CAPE), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wind&oldid=991281322, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 2-year term required 1. 'Cease' vs. 'Seize': Explaining the Difference. Well-constructed and whole frame houses completely leveled; some frame homes may be swept away; cars and other large objects thrown and small missiles generated. Areas of wind shear caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft. Wind erosion generally occurs in areas with little or no vegetation, often in areas where there is insufficient rainfall to support vegetation. When winds become strong, trees and human-made structures are damaged or destroyed. Winds have various aspects: velocity (wind speed); the density of the gas involved; energy content or wind energy. High winds are known to cause damage, depending upon the magnitude of their velocity and pressure differential. This may be caused by the wind blowing over cavities, or by vortices created in the air downstream of an object. A supernatural thriller set in the Western frontier of the late 1800s, The Wind stars Caitlin Gerard (INSIDIOUS: THE LAST KEY) as a plains-woman driven mad by the harshness and isolation of the untamed land. Wind farms consist of many individual wind turbines, which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. [96], Historically, the ancient Sinhalese of Anuradhapura and in other cities around Sri Lanka used the monsoon winds to power furnaces as early as 300 BCE. The larger the WPD calculation, the higher it is rated by class. A rudimentary windmill was used to power an organ in the first century CE. “Wind gusts may approach or exceed 110 km/h in wind-prone areas.” In southwestern Alberta, Environment Canada said wind gusts as high as 120 km/h are expected in some areas. wind phrase. Wind turbines may be employed individually, but are often installed in groups to form “wind farms” or “wind power plants.” Electricity generated by wind farms may be used locally, or placed on the electric grid to power homes and businesses farther away. The results of the above calculation are included in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab and referred to as "NREL CLASS". Therefore, windbreaks (such as big trees and bushes) are often planted by farmers to reduce the wind erosion of loess. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. [112] Since 1970, dust outbreaks have worsened because of periods of drought in Africa. [129] Although penguins use both a layer of fat and feathers to help guard against coldness in both water and air, their flippers and feet are less immune to the cold. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. [108] It generally occurs as a widespread blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. [47], Over elevated surfaces, heating of the ground exceeds the heating of the surrounding air at the same altitude above sea level, creating an associated thermal low over the terrain and enhancing any thermal lows that would have otherwise existed,[48][49] and changing the wind circulation of the region. He is said to be the ancestor (grandfather) of the winds of the eight directions. [136] Elk have a keen sense of smell that can detect potential upwind predators at a distance of 0.5 miles (800 m). Large families of plants are pollinated in this manner, which is favored when individuals of the dominant plant species are spaced closely together. [124] Plant varieties near the coast, such as the Sitka spruce and sea grape,[125] are pruned back by wind and salt spray near the coastline. On a rotating planet, air will also be deflected by the Coriolis effect, except exactly on the equator. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, and powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics", Federal Meteorological Handbook No. Windfinder specializes in wind, waves, tides and weather reports & forecasts for wind related sports like kitesurfing, windsurfing, surfing, sailing, fishing or paragliding. These particles are able to escape the sun's gravity, in part because of the high temperature of the corona,[152] but also because of high kinetic energy that particles gain through a process that is not well understood. This causes a pressure gradient of about 2 millibars from the ocean to the land. [142] Hurricane-force winds cause substantial damage to mobile homes, and begin to structurally damage homes with foundations. An important constraint on wind dispersal is the need for abundant seed production to maximize the likelihood of a seed landing in a site suitable for germination. Cassini–Huygens data indicated peak easterly winds of 375 meters per second (840 mph). 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth. Near the Earth's surface, friction causes the wind to be slower than it would be otherwise. [132] As such, fine line patterns within weather radar imagery, associated with converging winds, are dominated by insect returns. If an offshore wind of 8 knots (15 km/h) exists, the sea breeze is not likely to develop. [19] A storm has winds of 56 knots (104 km/h) to 63 knots (117 km/h). Strong winds of intermediate duration (around one minute) are termed squalls. Directed by Carroll Ballard. Over long periods of time, the planetary wind can radically change the composition of planetary atmospheres. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts. [86] During the North African Campaign of the World War II, "allied and German troops were several times forced to halt in mid-battle because of sandstorms caused by khamsin ... Grains of sand whirled by the wind blinded the soldiers and created electrical disturbances that rendered compasses useless. These conditions are dangerous to ascending and descending airplanes. In the coldest climates such as Antarctica, emperor penguins use huddling behavior to survive the wind and cold, continuously alternating the members on the outside of the assembled group, which reduces heat loss by 50%. METAR, TAF and NOTAMs for any airport in the World. [57] In California, downslope winds are funneled through mountain passes, which intensify their effect, and examples include the Santa Ana and sundowner winds. In Europe, similar winds are known as the Bora, Tramontane, and Mistral. The wind is strong around skyscrapers. Zephyr, also poetical, … Strong winds will pick up loose sand and topsoil and hurl it through the air at speeds ranging from 25 miles per hour (40 km/h) to 40 miles per hour (64 km/h). [68], Sound movement through the atmosphere is affected by wind shear, which can bend the wave front, causing sounds to be heard where they normally would not, or vice versa. [88] Ocean journeys by sailing ship can take many months,[89] and a common hazard is becoming becalmed because of lack of wind,[90] or being blown off course by severe storms or winds that do not allow progress in the desired direction. [126], Wind can also cause plants damage through sand abrasion. Total wind power could be captured only if the wind velocity is reduced to zero. The basic relation that the turbine power is (approximately) proportional to the third power of velocity remains. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. This barrier jet can increase the low-level wind by 45%. Examples of these parts are balconies, ventilation openings, roof openings or cables. In several countries it has achieved relatively high levels of penetration, accounting for approximately 19% of electricity production in Denmark, 10% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. In fact, wind exists because the sun unevenly heats the surface of the Earth. Similar to the solar wind, the planetary wind is composed of light gases that escape planetary atmospheres. Loess often stands in either steep or vertical faces. [105], During mid-summer (July in the northern hemisphere), the westward-moving trade winds south of the northward-moving subtropical ridge expand northwestward from the Caribbean into southeastern North America. [118] The Shamal is caused by cold fronts lifting dust into the atmosphere for days at a time across the Persian Gulf states. This triggers the main shaft of the wind turbine, connected to a gearbox within the nacelle, to spin. wind n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. wind up definition: 1. to find yourself in an unexpected and usually unpleasant situation, especially as a result of…. [106], There are local names for winds associated with sand and dust storms. Wind pressures are positive on the windward side of a structure and negative on the leeward side. One study indicates that an entirely renewable energy supply based on 70% wind is attainable at today's power prices by linking wind farms with an HVDC supergrid. For example, burn rates of smoldering logs are up to five times greater during the day because of lower humidity, increased temperatures, and increased wind speeds. [144] The most powerful gusts of wind on Earth were created by nuclear detonations. Wind, in climatology, the movement of air relative to the surface of the Earth. The study showed that the seedlings responded to the damage created by the windblown sand abrasion by shifting energy from stem and root growth to the growth and repair of the damaged stems. [79], Kamikaze (神風) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, believed to be a gift from the gods. This is the wind, wave and weather forecast for Kingston Airport/Ontario in Ontario, Canada. Color-coded maps are prepared for a particular area are described as, for example, "mean annual power density at 50 meters". Which word describes a musical performance marked by the absence of instrumental accompaniment. Therefore, a northeast wind will be depicted with a line extending from the cloud circle to the northeast, with flags indicating wind speed on the northeast end of this line. In human civilization, the concept of wind has been explored in mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, and provided a power source for mechanical work, electricity, and recreation. [151], Rather than air, the solar wind is a stream of charged particles—a plasma—ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun at a rate of 400 kilometers per second (890,000 mph). It was the first wind farm over 100MW to be built in the Dutch North Sea and comprises 36 wind turbines that produce enough renewable electricity for more than 100,000 Dutch households. [141] While no species of tree is guaranteed to stand up to hurricane-force winds, those with shallow roots are more prone to uproot, and brittle trees such as eucalyptus, sea hibiscus, and avocado are more prone to damage. When large-scale winds are calm, the strength of the sea breeze is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the landmass and the sea. [134], Pikas use a wall of pebbles to store dry plants and grasses for the winter in order to protect the food from being blown away. Vayu is the Hindu God of Wind. Wind turbines allow us to harness the power of the wind and turn it into energy. In Central America, examples include the Papagayo wind, the Panama wind, and the Tehuano wind. Wind also affects the spread of wildfires. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Black Friday Offer $55 for 20GB, Plus a Galaxy S20 FE 5G On Us. Such windblown sand causes extensive damage to plant seedlings because it ruptures plant cells, making them vulnerable to evaporation and drought. The energy that drives wind originates with the sun, which heats the Earth unevenly, creating warm spots and cool spots. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. [83] Protestant Wind is a name for the storm that deterred the Spanish Armada from an invasion of England in 1588 where the wind played a pivotal role,[84] or the favorable winds that enabled William of Orange to invade England in 1688. When dust from the Sahara moving around the southern periphery of the ridge within the belt of trade winds moves over land, rainfall is suppressed and the sky changes from a blue to a white appearance, which leads to an increase in red sunsets. before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a, 15th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 2, before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1a, 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 4, 1586, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1, Middle English, from Old English; akin to Old High German wint wind, Latin ventus, Greek aēnai to blow, Sanskrit vāti it blows, Middle English, from Old English windan to twist, move with speed or force, brandish; akin to Old High German wintan to wind, Umbrian ohavendu let him turn aside. Wildfire intensity increases during daytime hours. If the wind is blowing harder, it may produce howling sounds of varying frequencies. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! In Java, the local name for such winds is koembang. It is commonly observed near microbursts and downbursts caused by thunderstorms,[68] weather fronts, areas of locally higher low level winds referred to as low level jets, near mountains,[69] radiation inversions that occur because of clear skies and calm winds, buildings,[70] wind turbines,[71] and sailboats. When a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds. Total destruction to man-made structures occurs when winds reach 175 knots (324 km/h). [153] Planets require large magnetic fields in order to reduce the ionization of their upper atmosphere by the solar wind. [76] The thermal wind concept explains how differences in wind speed with height are dependent on horizontal temperature differences, and explains the existence of the jet stream. Faster rotation translates to more mechanical power and more electrical power from the generator. [102], Wind figures prominently in several popular sports, including recreational hang gliding, hot air ballooning, kite flying, snowkiting, kite landboarding, kite surfing, paragliding, sailing, and windsurfing. High altitude wind power is the focus of over 30 companies worldwide using tethered technology rather than ground-hugging compressive-towers. Using a mechanical sandblaster in a laboratory setting, scientists affiliated with the Agricultural Research Service studied the effects of windblown sand abrasion on cotton seedlings. Peels surface off some roofs; some damage to gutters or siding; branches broken off trees; shallow-rooted trees pushed over. [101] Oil is being saved by using wind for powering cargo ships by use of the mechanical energy converted from the wind's kinetic energy using very large kites. In gliding, wind gradients just above the surface affect the takeoff and landing phases of flight of a glider. It takes into account wind velocity and mass. [28] The strongest winds are in the mid-latitudes where cold polar air meets warm air from the tropics. A national non-profit association, CanWEA serves as Canada’s leading source of credible information about wind energy and its social, economic and environmental benefits. [79] There are also four dvärgar (Norse dwarves), named Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri, and probably the four stags of Yggdrasil, personify the four winds, and parallel the four Greek wind gods. During strong thunderstorms, straight line wind speeds can exceed 100 mph. Wind, waves & weather forecast Shearwater/Halifax / Nova Scotia, Canada for kitesurfing, windsurfing, surfing & sailing (with Digital Discount) 3 Big Gig Unlimited 4 data plan with 20GB of Fast LTE data and get the Samsung Galaxy S20 FE 5G for Absolute Zero TM 9. Globally, the two major driving factors of large-scale wind patterns (the atmospheric circulation) are the differential heating between the equator and the poles (difference in absorption of solar energy leading to buoyancy forces) and the rotation of the planet. [110] Loess deposits are geologically unstable by nature, and will erode very readily. The winds are predominantly from the southwest in the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere. On coasts and isolated mountains, the tree line is often much lower than in corresponding altitudes inland and in larger, more complex mountain systems, because strong winds reduce tree growth. The wind is a clean, free, and readily available renewable energy source. Directly under the subtropical ridge are the doldrums, or horse latitudes, where winds are lighter. (moving air) vent nm nom masculin: s'utilise avec les articles "le", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "un". At night, the land cools off more quickly than the ocean because of differences in their specific heat values. The Calima carries dust on southeast winds into the Canary islands. [97] The furnaces were constructed on the path of the monsoon winds to exploit the wind power, to bring the temperatures inside up to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F). [98] The first practical windmills were later built in Sistan, Afghanistan, from the 7th century CE. Two simple examples of this are sea breezes and land breezes. [140] Wind speeds as low as 23 knots (43 km/h) can lead to power outages due to tree branches disrupting the flow of energy through power lines. Outside the tropics and aloft from frictional effects of the surface, the large-scale winds tend to approach geostrophic balance. [67], Wind shear itself is a microscale meteorological phenomenon occurring over a very small distance, but it can be associated with mesoscale or synoptic scale weather features such as squall lines and cold fronts. Winds can disperse seeds from various plants, enabling the survival and dispersal of those plant species, as well as flying insect populations. [100] Horizontal-axle windmills were later used extensively in Northwestern Europe to grind flour beginning in the 1180s, and many Dutch windmills still exist. [156], Strong 300 kilometers per hour (190 mph) winds at Venus's cloud tops circle the planet every four to five earth days. [18] There are general terms that differentiate winds of different average speeds such as a breeze, a gale, a storm, or a hurricane. The Egmond aan Zee wind farm off the Dutch coast is a 50-50 joint venture between European utility company Nuon and Shell. If the wind gradient is significant or sudden, or both, and the pilot maintains the same pitch attitude, the indicated airspeed will increase, possibly exceeding the maximum ground launch tow speed. [159][160] On Jupiter, wind speeds of 100 meters per second (220 mph) are common in zonal jet streams. When winds are sustained at 40-50 mph, isolated wind damage is possible. If you're seeing this message, that means JavaScript has been disabled on your browser, please enable JS to make this app work. [148], The hydrodynamic wind within the upper portion of a planet's atmosphere allows light chemical elements such as hydrogen to move up to the exobase, the lower limit of the exosphere, where the gases can then reach escape velocity, entering outer space without impacting other particles of gas. [127] After a period of four weeks, the growth of the seedling once again became uniform throughout the plant, as it was before the windblown sand abrasion occurred. This is called deflation. [111] Over 50% of the African dust that reaches the United States affects Florida. Surface friction also causes winds to blow more inward into low-pressure areas. [72] Wind shear has a significant effect on the control of aircraft during take-off and landing,[73] and was a significant cause of aircraft accidents involving large loss of life within the United States. It flows parallel to isobars and approximates the flow above the atmospheric boundary layer in the midlatitudes. [92] Sailing ships can only carry a certain quantity of supplies in their hold, so they have to plan long voyages carefully to include appropriate provisions, including fresh water. As the glider descends through the wind gradient on final approach to landing, airspeed decreases while sink rate increases, and there is insufficient time to accelerate prior to ground contact. The geostrophic wind component is the result of the balance between Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. [77], As a natural force, the wind was often personified as one or more wind gods or as an expression of the supernatural in many cultures. [60] Although wind produced only about 1.5% of worldwide electricity use in 2009,[60] it is growing rapidly, having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. Infrequent wind gusts can cause poorly designed suspension bridges to sway. [7] Weather vanes pivot to indicate the direction of the wind. [167] The fastest wind on any known planet is on HD 80606 b located 190 light years away, where it blows at more than 11,000 mph or 5 km/s. Their cerci are very sensitive to the wind, and help them survive half of their attacks. [107] Loess is a homogeneous, typically nonstratified, porous, friable, slightly coherent, often calcareous, fine-grained, silty, pale yellow or buff, windblown (Aeolian) sediment. Hills and valleys substantially distort the airflow by increasing friction between the atmosphere and landmass by acting as a physical block to the flow, deflecting the wind parallel to the range just upstream of the topography, which is known as a barrier jet. The fastest wind ever recorded is coming from the accretion disc of the IGR J17091-3624 black hole. [130] Flying insects, a subset of arthropods, are swept along by the prevailing winds,[131] while birds follow their own course taking advantage of wind conditions, in order to either fly or glide. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 06:50. Find all the weather maps, satellite and radar maps, weather conditions and explanations you're looking for. [51], If there is a pass in the mountain range, winds will rush through the pass with considerable speed because of the Bernoulli principle that describes an inverse relationship between speed and pressure. [150] Additionally, planets with hotter lower atmospheres could accelerate the loss rate of hydrogen. wind noun (CURRENT OF AIR) A1 [ C or U ] a current of air moving approximately horizontally, especially one strong enough to be felt: There isn't enough wind to fly a kite. Winds of this strength due to downsloped winds off terrain have been known to shatter windows and sandblast paint from cars. Wind dispersal can take on one of two primary forms: seeds can float on the breeze or alternatively, they can flutter to the ground. Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. [5] The gradient wind is similar to the geostrophic wind but also includes centrifugal force (or centripetal acceleration). [135] Cockroaches use slight winds that precede the attacks of potential predators, such as toads, to survive their encounters. Westerly winds in the mid-latitudes of the planet drive the movement of ocean currents from west to east across the world's oceans. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their average strength, such as breeze, gale, storm, and hurricane. [113] Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s. [79] Aeolus, in varying interpretations the ruler or keeper of the four winds, has also been described as Astraeus, the god of dusk who fathered the four winds with Eos, goddess of dawn. “Wind.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/wind. The blast wave is similar to a strong wind gust over the ground. [40] These western ocean currents transport warm, sub-tropical water polewards toward the polar regions. Under appropriate climatic conditions, areas with loess are among the most agriculturally productive in the world. Our Word of the Year 'pandemic,' plus 11 more. Most ocean basins use the average wind speed to determine the tropical cyclone's category. Originally it was a 13-level scale (0-12), but during the 1940s, the scale was expanded to 18 levels (0-17). Wind causes the generation of sound. Harnessing the unequaled wind resources off the coast of Maine is critical to meet the state’s climate goals of moving Maine to using 80 percent renewable energy by 2030, and 100 percent by 2050, in order to curb harmful greenhouse gas emissions. The sea is warmed by the sun more slowly because of water's greater specific heat compared to land. Internet 50Mbps, τηλεόραση WIND VISION με περισσότερα από 60 συνδρομητικά κανάλια & δώρο Wi-Fi Extender για κάλυψη σε κάθε γωνιά του σπιτιού! Forecast models ECMWF, GFS, NAM and NEMS [85] During Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign, the French soldiers had a hard time with the khamsin wind: when the storm appeared "as a blood-stint in the distant sky", the Ottomans went to take cover, while the French "did not react until it was too late, then choked and fainted in the blinding, suffocating walls of dust". [122], Wind also limits tree growth. Winds play a significant role in determining and controlling climate and weather. For instance, species in the Asteraceae on islands tended to have reduced dispersal capabilities (i.e., larger seed mass and smaller pappus) relative to the same species on the mainland. Its speed is 20,000,000 miles per hour (32,000,000 km/h), which is 3% of the speed of light. Downslope winds also occur in the foothills of the Appalachian mountains of the United States,[55] and they can be as strong as other downslope winds [56] and unusual compared to other foehn winds in that the relative humidity typically changes little due to the increased moisture in the source air mass. [161] Saturn's winds are among the Solar System's fastest. [17] Remote sensing techniques for wind include SODAR, Doppler lidars and radars, which can measure the Doppler shift of electromagnetic radiation scattered or reflected off suspended aerosols or molecules, and radiometers and radars can be used to measure the surface roughness of the ocean from space or airplanes. Strong-framed, well-built houses leveled off foundations and swept away; steel-reinforced concrete structures are critically damaged; tall buildings collapse or have severe structural deformations; cars, trucks, and trains can be thrown approximately 1 mile (1.6 km). How to use wind in a sentence. In Europe downwind of the Alps, they are known as foehn. [44] Because of the low sun angle, cold air builds up and subsides at the pole creating surface high-pressure areas, forcing an equatorward outflow of air;[45] that outflow is deflected westward by the Coriolis effect. A brief treatment of winds follows. Confirmed tornadoes with no reported damage (i.e., those that remain in open fields) are supposed to be rated EF0 as a matter of policy; however, some NWS local offices have adopted an "EFU" (for "unknown") rating for such tornadoes.[23]. Many of the Earth's deserts lie near the average latitude of the subtropical ridge, where descent reduces the relative humidity of the air mass. Below is the scale. [29] The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere. Speed is 20,000,000 miles per hour ( 99 mph ). [ ]... 'S winds are strong ( 117 km/h ). [ 58 ] description of wind speed GPS. 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